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S3\ -\3 




61934 



TIMBER ENGINEERING COMPANY 

WASHINGTON 



Less Material . . 

. . Greater Strength 

. . Much Less Cost 

// ten thousand feet of lumber are nor- 
mally required to erect a given structure 
and if through cJionge of design the same 
structuri is found to require only eight 
thousand feet, the average owner, archi- 
tect, or engim^er will be much interested 
in siich a sailing. . . . 

. . . but, if in addition to this real 
saving th( 7ieu' building is frilly as strong 
and more rigid titan the original and its 
appearance greatly improved, the sa^ne 
ar(rag( owner, architect, or engineer will 
most certaiuly f< ( I tliat the scales arc 
tipp( d so far in faror of the new type that 
the older no longer deserves consideration. 

This is th( ( xact situation irith refcr- 
( Nc( to tnnlur connector construction to- 
day . . . as any r( ader of this booklet 
irill rf (ilize. 



SIMPLE, INEXPENSIVE JOINT CONNECTORS 
MAKE STRONGER STRUCTURES COST LESS 



TECO Timber Joint Connectors 
are manufactured for the purpose 
of saving money for builders and 
making available to a wider range 
of structural types the fundamental 
economy of timber construction. 

With TECO Connectors, joints in 
timber framing can be made two to 
three times as strong as with the 
ordinary bolt and plate fastenings 
of conventional building construc- 
tion. Despite this great contribu- 
tion to structural efficiency they are 
simple, inexpensive, and easily in- 
stalled. 

Such greatly increased strength at 
crucial points in the average struc- 
tural assembly is of such prime engi- 
neering importance as to change the 
entire designing principle and cost 
aspect of many types of buildings. 



TECO Connectors establish a new 
basis for the economical utilization 
of timber framing in construction. 
They set up a vastly improved sys- 
tem for timber design and erection. 

Any user or builder of structures 
or industrial assemblies which must 
carry heavy loads can save money 
because TECO Connectors permit a 
less costly material than was for- 
merly associated with such struc- 
tures to do the job. Radio towers, 
transmission lines, oil derricks, 
bridges, wharves, tipples, heavy 
foundations, long-span trusses, false 
work, and scores of other construc- 
tion types can be built for less money 
through TECO design. 

TECO-type joints eliminate the 
traditional, but costly, inefficient, 
and cumbersome array of steel or 



h 

3 



t 
8 




Figure 1 — (Lejt) A tooihcd-rincj 
TECO Connector which distributes 
stresses in joints through self-embed- 
ment of one-half of its depth in each 
face of adjoining timbers. 

Figure 2— (Right) A split-ring TECO 
Connector which distributes stresses in 
joints through having one-half its depth 
embedded in pre-cut circular grooves in 
each of two adjoining timber faces. 




NEW BUILDING TYPES OPEN TO TIMBER ECONOMIES 



iron plates, angles, and straps asso- 
ciated with ordinary timber joints. 
With but a fraction of their weight 
and expense, TECO Connectors 
greatly increase the structural effi- 
ciency of these outmoded forms. 

Since TECO Connectors produce 
a fundamentally new structural sys- 
tem, obvious hardware savings are 
only of minor consequence. More 
important economies come through 
substantial savings in the quantity 
and grade of timber required to do 
a given job. in fabricating and erect- 
ing labor, type of labor required, and 
reduccnl shipping charges. 

T E C () (\)nnect()i's accomj^lish 
their ])ur])()S(* through dec(Miti"aliza- 
tion (*f loads and stresses at joints. 
A b(tlt or a s(^ries of bohs in oj'dinary 
timbc'r frainin<!: cause all stresses to 



centralize on the small area against 
which bolts bear. TECO Connec- 
tors enlarge the bearing area of such 
stresses to the entire width of the 
timbers involved. It is instantly 
apparent that with TECO construc- 
tion the per-square-inch load of 
actual load-bearing areas in joints 
is greatly reduced and that the 
strength of a particular joint so 
treated will be vastly increased. 

Because of their centralization or 
localization of loads, ordinary bolted 
joints are never as strong as the 
wood members they join. Because 
of this it has always been the cus- 
tom in designing for bolted joints to 
use members much larger than ac- 
tually necessary to provide enough 
wood for safe bolt-bearing purposes 
at joints. Such designing is expen- 




^ 



FiMkK :i ~(L(ft) A tfipicdl lapped joint nssc7nbly 

tfj sj/lit-rfnt/ ((HUKctftrs. All (jfiton s an pre-cut. 
liolfs (la iittf f unci ton ni a h)(i(l-c(irryiiuf rufmriiy, hut 
>' fr( pnnnntlij to Imlil tin iunbtr mctnhers and the 
foil IK r( or.^ in pasii unt . 

VUAHV: \'(/i(hnr) A tijptrnl lapped J(tint of 
tintfin d-niKj ronnt dors in pasit((fn irifh holts in 
phiri /list hi if, I ( lli( pn .<sur< is (ippli(d which scats 
I In inu/s li(dj (l,(/r di pfh in adjoining faces of 
nnmlurs 




EXPENSIVE, WASTEFUL DESIGNING NOW ELIMINATED 



sive and wasteful. TECO Connec- 
tors eliminate this waste because 
TECO joints are as strong as the 
members they join. 

The TIMBER ENGINEERING 
COMPANY, Inc., a subsidiary or- 
ganization of American Forest Prod- 
ucts Industries, Inc., owns, under 
patents and patent rights in the 
United States various devices for 
improved timber construction which 
by practical experience, and through 
thorough laboratory tests by the 
U. S. Government, have been shown 
to be efficient and low-cost with 
American species of wood. 

This booklet describes two timber 
joint connectors now^ manufactured 
and distributed by the Company. 

These are: the toothed-ring type, 
sometimes called the ''Alligator," 
and the split or broken ringed type. 



Both connectors are intended to ac- 
complish the same general results, 
although their method of application 
differs and their sphere of use is not 
always identical. The selection of a 
connector to be used is largely a mat- 
ter of engineering analysis of indi- 
vidual projects. 

Toothed-ring connectors (see fig- 
ures one and four) are double- 
toothed rings of sixteen gauge, cor- 
rugated, hot-rolled, sheet-steel. A 
bolt hole is bored in the timbers 
to be joined. The connectors are 
placed between adjacent faces of the 
timbers meeting at joints. The 
members are then drawn tightly 
together by the use of a ratchet 
wrench witli high-strength, nickel- 
steel bolts temporarily inserted in 
the hole at approximately the center 
of the t()()th(Hl rings. As the faces 
of the thnbers come together the 
toothed rings are firmly embedded 



Figure 5 — This picture of 
a shop- fabric at id 100- foot 
lookout tower explains bet- 
ter than words the funda- 
mental saving of tJie TECO 
system. Note the slim mem- 
bers for the height of this 
titwer. Despite the saving 
of tnaterial in this case, the 
resulting tower will be much 
stronger than if it were con- 
structed of heavier t i tribe r 
and metal plates, angles, and 
supports. 



i% ";;4 I 




TECO-CONNECTED JOINTS ECONOMICAL TO ASSEMBLE 



in the wood, the teeth entering each 
member to half the depth of the 
ring (see figure eight). For the fin- 
ished joint the high-strength tool 
bolt is replaced with an ordinary 
bolt. This bolt holds the timber 
members and the toothed ring in 
position. The finish bolt carries 
little load, this being the function of 
the connector which transfers loads 
from one member to another. 

Spllt-ruig connectors (see figures 
two and three) are plain, straight- 
edged steel rings containing a tongue 
and groove joint or break. Their 
position in a timber joint is similar 
to that of the toothed-ring connec- 
tor. Circular grooves arc* cut in the 
adjacent faces of the tim}>ers to b(* 
joiiHMl to a dej)th half the width 
of the ring, and a holt hole hortHf 
at approximately the ecMiter of th(^ 
groove. The ring is plactnl in the 
groove in one thnber, the other thn- 



ber placed over it, and the two pieces 
drawn tightly together by the bolt 
which remains in the joint. 

When loaded, a split-ring connec- 
tor, being slightly flexible because of 
the break in its surface, bears both 
against the outside rim of the groove 
in which it is confined as well as 
against the core of wood within it. 

One of the most important con- 
tributions of the TECO connector 
system to timber design is the estab- 
lishment of known strength figures 
for joints. Joints using either of the 
two TECO connectors have been 
I)roven by laboratory test to be as 
strong as the members they join. 
An ade(]uate body of information on 
the fundamental strength of Amer- 
ican timber sjyecies is readily avail- 
al)le from CJovernment research 
sources. Thus the strength of an 
entire structure can now be ac- 




Vii.WiK G— yl// /// (htsc fa- 
ffuhfir strchijifn until (Ictuccs 
for ttmhi r joints had to he dc- 
rdoptd t<t hdp d(rrntraliZ(' or 
.^pifftd loads at joints. Thry 
'in- h((ivi^, ((fstly, hard to in- 
stall, and do not utiiiz< all (h( 
strength of the wood. 

Wit It T K C O ConnectorH, 
unf)l< , li(jh(, and (any to in- 
stall, all of Ihene old attach- 
nu ,.f^ ,.r, fliminated. 



TOOTHED AND SPLIT RINGS TESTED BY U. S. LABORATORY 



curately calculated for engineering 
purposes. Accurate calculations 
save material waste, and material 
wasted is money lost. 

TECO Connectors were first in- 
troduced to the construction indus- 
tries of the United States through 
the medium of United States Gov- 
ernment agencies. Extensive study 
of many joint connectors abroad 
demonstrated that American con- 
struction industries should be per- 
mitted their economical advantages. 

The National Committee on Wood 
Utilization of the U. S. Department 
of Commerce investigated all types 
of wood and metal connectors pop- 
ular in Europe. The toothed-ring 
and split-ring types were found to 
be of great potential value to the 
construction industries of this coun- 
try. In order that users in the 
United States might have up-to-date 
technical information on the actual 



engineering information of the two 
connector types and full facts re- 
garding their use with American 
woods, they were put through rigor- 
ous tests at the United States Forest 
Products Laboratory, Aladison, Wis- 
consin. 

All of the connector design data 
developed by these tests are avail- 
able through the Timber Engineer- 
ing Company. They are directly 
applicable to these American species 
of wood: Douglas Fir, Western 



( Tunt lit pfi(/r S) 



FKiruK 7 — (L((f) A /rurcr totfl, (spccialh/ 

(l(r(l()f)('<l for TECO Sifl/t-l\ni<j ('<ntfH'<-lors, 
niak(s f)r( -jdhncdtfOH of sf met ural tissf fft()h('s, 
in this cdst (I laalcoiit hnt'cr, (i roti r( fttrtit , 
erortoftiicdl firoccss. 

Figure 8 — (Rn/ht) Xttdiifuj rouhl he tnorc 
simf)I(' than thr iastdUdtlofi (fj tootlicd-niKj 
corifK ('tors. Th( onlt/ too! rci/uin d is d (/<dul 
sfrotif/ irr(nch. .\f urJi hss tinu is n (/u/ml in 
pld('( toot hf'(l-n n(/s tn })(/s/tn)n tlmn to hon 
)nnncroiis tyott holts far hott-tt/pr ronstriw- 
1 10 n . 







All of the structures illus- 
trated on these two pages 
were built in the United 
States within six months 
of the time TECO Con- 
nectors became available 
to American builders. 



USERS 01 



VARIED com 



STRUCTURES i 



ECONOMY, I 



AND SIMPI 




If ood TECO-conncctor base adds 120 feet to the tower 
of Radio Station WEBC—Hcad of the Lakes Broad- 
casting Company, Superior, Wis. Station efficiency was 
greatly improved. 

Fire Lookout Tower built for the Florida Forest Service. 
HctghtSO feet to the cab. 

A gravel buJiker designed for construction with TECO- 
rtntnectors became of the extremely heavy loads placed 
upon ,t. Built for the Charles H. Hughes Company, 
Berkeley, California. 

4. Connector-built overhead highway bridge at Preston, 
Laltjornia. Money saved in the material requirements 
oj tfii,, structure for the California State Highway Com- 
mission. ^ 



J 




S>H 



or WIDELY 



NUECTOR-BUILT 



S ATTEST THEIR 



f.EFFICIENCY 



WPLICITY OF 



0. Fire Lookout Tower on Ml. Hood National Forest, 
Oregon. Note the dim mvmbtrs oj this KfO-foot tower 
ereeted for the U. S. Forest Seruice. 

6. TECO-designed 60-foot trusses for the Clark Riding 
Mali Upper rilh\ Va. These trusses contain less material 
but are stronger than others available through any pre- 
tnously used joint system. 

7. Wide-span trusses for providing clear space in large store 

budding to be used by F. \\\ Woolworth and Company, 
San Mateo, Calif. 

5. Thousands of tons of water economically supported by 
a substructure of Connector-jointed timbers. In 710 
other way could this great weight have been supported 
so economically. 











^^^^ 


K^HhuLiikiB 


Ho 





INDUSTRIAL LEADERS FAVOR NEW TECO SYSTEM 



Larch, Longieaf and Short leaf 
Southern Pine. Tidewater Red Cy- 
press, Redwood, and Tamarack; 
and they can be adapted to other 
softwoods, and to hardwoods as well. 

The exceptional importance of the 
connector innovation in construction 
is attested by these connnents of 
distinguished individualists at the 
time of the Government's introduc- 
tion of the system in the United 
States. 

ROY D, CHAPL\\ former Secre^ 
tary of Commerce, said, ''The appli- 
cation of Modern Timber Connec- 
tors should be carefully studied by 
architects, engineers, and builders. 
The principle involves economy in 
construction costs and increased 
service from building materials/' 

B, L. KXOWLES, of the Asso- 
ciated General Contractors, said, 
''Speeding up of erection, economy 
in construction cost, and a greater 
control of materials through pre- 
fabrication and asse?nbly of wood 
members should recommend the 
modern connector system to every 
contractor.'' 



RALPH BIDD, President, Bur^ 
lington Lines, said, ''Modern Timber 
Connectors will unquestionably have 
a large application in the railway 
field, since the strengthening of the 
bolted joints from two to five times 
will solve many difficult problems 
with timber construction on which 
railway engineers have worked for 
many years. The possibility of pre- 
fabricating lumber at the mills under 
this system and the ease with which 
members may be assembled on the 
job offer considerable advantages in 
construction cost.'' 



Figure 9 — (Below) An elemental compari- 
san of two timber joints both designed to carry 
the same load. One, assembled in traditional 
fashion with bolts and steel plates, requires a 
cord footage of 275 feet of lumber, 24 bolts, 
and JfS washers. The other, designed for use 
of Split-ring TECO connectors, requires a cord 
footage of 135 feet of lumber, 8 bolts, and 16 
icashers, resulting in a saving of 50 per cent 
in lumber and 6(J% per ant in hardware. 

The obvious saving of con^'^truction materials 
ui this typical case ill wst rates only one element 
ni the fundamental economy of connector-con- 
struction. The saving in labor time in the 
assembly of many jotnt,s of this type wauld 
assume equal importance. 




m 



mM^ ' 3 3 3 3 



TYPICAL FISH PLATE SPLICES FOR SAME LOAD WITH BOLTS AND WITH SPLIT RINGS 
BOLTED JOINT jOI^T ^,j^ gp^,^ ^^^^ 

2 Sp.« Pl„es 2..0i 2-9- j Sp,,,^ p,,,,^ j-.g, j.^* 

16 Split R.ngs 4' D-am 



I F.ller 3xlO"x 2-9' 



Chord Footage ^ 275 Ft. B.M 



Chord Footage 135 FT B M 



WHAT ARE THE DIRECT PRACTICAL 
ADVANTAGES OF TECO CONSTRUCTION 



1. TECO Connector construction offers a 
direct, tangible dollar saving in the ma- 
terials of construction. 

2. TECO design makes possible the substitu- 
tion of timber for steel in many cases; 
and the resultant saving is not only in 
material, but in design cost, time required 
for erection, shipping charges, and erec- 
tion labor. 

3. TECO Connectors are so simple to in- 
stall and calculations may be made so 
accurately in advance that a large per- 
centage of non-skilled lalmr may be used 
in TECO construction. 

4. TECO c<mstruction is amazingly strong — 
the connectors permit an even resistance 
in joints to loads from all directions mak- 
ing sure that loads will not be centralized 
and overburden small areas of material. 

5. Connectors cannot cause checks in ma- 
terial and where checks already exist they 
will be prevented from increasing in size. 

6. TECO Connectors easily adjust them- 
selves to expansion and c<intraclion, 
eliminating troubles from these causes 
found in other methods of assembly. 

7. TECO Connectors save a great deal of 
hardware money by replacing expensive 
plates, hangers, angles and straps. 

8. Connector-built structures have very 
pleasing elevations because of the sub- 
stitution of lighter members for heavy, 
awkward-looking timbers. 

9. TECO Ring Connectors permit the dis- 
mantling and moving of structures with- 
out injury to materials. 

10. Toothed-rings and split-rings are the most 
economical means known of obtaining 
the strongest possible wood joints and 
thus strong structures generally. 



STRONGER, LIGHTER, AND MORE 
OF THESE GREAT INDUSTRIES RESULT 



TECO design is applicable to any stiTicture 
using timber framing, laminated floors, sub- 
foundations or any other structural use where 
loads must be transferred from one member to 
another. TECO Connector uses are legion, 
and the industries and functional uses listed 
below are only a few embracing obv^ious 
economies : 

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings — All Types and Occupancies 

1. Roof trusses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and purlins 

3. Laminated floors 

Platjortns, Heavy Floors, Decks, Piers — Covered and 
Vticovered 

1. Trusses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, l>eains, girders, purlins, and 

caps 

3. Laminated floors 

Grandstands, Stadiums and BUacftcrs 

1. Trusses and arches 

2. Built-up coluuins, beams, girders and purlins 

Towcri^, Ma.sts and Derricks 

1. Radio 

2. Observation 

3. Beacon 

4. Transmission 

5. Railway electrification 
(i. Tank 

7. Oil derricks 

8. Gin poles 

9. Lifting derricks 

10. Tipples 

11. C'oohng towi'rs 

!ir><hj,s and TrtstUs 

1. Railway 

2. Higiiway 

3. Su>pen;«ion .--tdlcners 

4. Foot 

Of/nr liracy frunifd Strurturcs 

1. Dry d<.cks 

2. Lock gates 

3. C(»ff('rdams and eribbing 

4. Head works 

5. liunkers 

6. Oil stations 

7. Convexors 

8. Barges and ^h^ps 

In Construction (Operations 
\. Falsework 

2. Hea\T forms 

3. Caissons 

4. Scaffolding 

5. Tra\elers 



HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION 

Bridges and Trestles 

1. Trusses and arches 

2. Stiffener trusses for cable suspension 

3. Laminated decks 

4. Built-up stringers, including splicers 

B u ildin gs — Eci uipment Storage 

1. Roof trusses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and purlins 

3. Laminated floors 

Other Heavy Frame Structures 

1. Sand and gravel bunkers 

2. Conveyors 

3. Cofferdams and cribbing 

Di Construction Operations 

1. Falsework 

2. Hea^y forms 

3. Caisson trusses 

4. Scaff"olding 

5. Travelers 



MARINE INDUSTRIES 





1 


Trusses 














2 


Built-up columns 


beams. 


girders 


and 


purlins 




3. 


Laminated decks 












Other 


Heavy Framed St 


rue 


tures 










1. 


Dry docks 














2. 


Lock gates 














3. 


Cofferdams and cri})bing 










4. 


Barges and ships 












Ha 


Idi 


ig — .4^/ Types 














I. 


Roof trusses and 


J re 


les 










2. 


Built-up columns, 


be 


ims, 


gi r ders 


and 


purlins 




3. 


Laminated floors 












In 


Construction Operations 












1. 


Falsework 














2. 


Heavy forms 














3. 


Caisson trusses 














4. 


Scaff"olding 














5. 


Travelers 













MINING INDUSTRY 

Buddings— All Types 

1. Roof trus.ses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and purlins 

3. Laminated floors 

Othtr Structuren 
\. Head works 

2. Tipples 

3. Bunkers and ore stations 

4. C-onveyors 



ECONOMICAL STRUCTURES IN EACH 
FROM CONNECTOR-DESIGNED PLANS 



In Construction Operations 

1. Falsework 

2. Heavy forms 

3. Caissons 

4. Trusses 

5. Scaffolding 

6. Timbering and underpinning 

OIL INDUSTRY 

Derricks 

1. Pumping derricks 

2. Drilling derricks 

3. Derrick foundations 

4. Walking beams 

5. Gin poles 

Towers 

1. Tank 

2. C()f>ling towers 

LnfidiiKi Docks, Ilraii/ Decks, ]Miarvcs 

1. Trusses and arches 

2. Built-up colunuis, beams, gird<Ts and 

3. Laminated floors 

Building— All Types 

1, Trusses and arches 

2, RuiU-up roluiiins, beams, girder^ .-iiid 

3, Laminated floors 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 

liHihinKjs Al( Types 

1. Roof trusses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and i)urliiis 

3. Laminated floors 

4. Transformer yards 

Touu rs 

1. Trnrismission 

2. Tank 

In Ctnistruction Operations 

L Falsework 

2. Heavy forms 

3. Caissons 

4. Scaffolding 

5. Travelers 

6. Lifting towers 



RADIO INDUSTRY 

Towers and Masts 

1. Transmission 

2. Receiving 

3. Reflating 

Build infjs 

1. Roof trusses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and purlins 



RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings — All Types 

1. Roof trusses and arches 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and purlins 

3. Laminated floors 

Loading Docks, Heavy Decks, Floors (covered and 
uncovered) 

1. Trusses and arches — roofs and floors 

2. Built-up columns, beams, girders and purlins 

3. Laminated floors 

Bridges and Trestles 

1. Trusses and arches 

2. Laminated floors 

3. Built-up stringers, includmg spluers 

Other Henry Frame Structures 

1. Piers 

2. Dry docks 

3. (Vjaling and ore statiftns 

4. Sand and gravel bunkers 

5. Cofferdams and eribbmg 

Towers 

L (\intrnl 

2. Transmission 

3. Railway eleeti ifieat ion 

4. Tank 

5. LiftmK deriirks 

I„ Coitsfnicfion Opi rations 
L Falsework 

2. Heavy forms 

3. Caisson tius.>,es 

4. Sraftoldmg 
;>. Travelers 

FEDERAL, STATE AND MUNICIPAL 

Orandstamls, St nd nuns and H! ear hers 

1. Trusses atnl arrh(>s 

2. Built-up coliinnis, beams, girders and iniditis 

Touu rs 

1. Observation 

2. lieacon 

3. 'I'i-in>missinn 

4. Tank 

.-). Kailwav 

Bnilgis and Trestles 

1. Hitdiway 

2. Foot 

3. A.IMi^lurt 

Bnddnigs Ml Tf/P's 

1. Rt.of tniss.'s 

2. Built-up rolmnns 

3. r.aminafed finors 

In ('inistnictioii Operations 

1. Falsework 

2. Heavy form>; 

3. Scaflolrbnt: 

4. Travelers 



HOW YOU MAY APPLY TECO SAVINGS 
AND SECURE TECO ENGINEERING DATA 



TECO Connectors are sold by the home 
office of the Thnber Engineering Company, 
1337 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, 
D. C; or through Hcensees of the Company. 

Since design factors for TECO Connector 
construction differ from commonly known 
factors for ordinary bolt-connected struc- 
tures, the Timber Engineering Company 
maintains a competent staff of engineers and 
wood technologists to advise architects and 
engineers in the design and checking of con- 
struction plans calling for TECO Connectors. 

Through this staff fundamental engineer- 
ing information needed by designers of pro- 
posed TECO construction is always avail- 
able. This material includes results of the 
extensive laboratory tests in the United 
States, and full data obtained from the great 
body of European connector construction. 

The Timber Engineering Company itself 
has developed an extensive series of sample 
designs for many types of connector-built 
buildings and other structures. Among these 
are trusses for both pitched and arched roofs, 
oil derricks, radio towers, lookout towers, 
bridges and trestles. 

For information of any character concern- 
ing TECO connector-built structures, TECO 
engineering data, TECO sample plans, or 
the purchase of connectors, write the — 



TIMBER ENGINEERING COMPANY 

1337 Connecticut Avenue 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 




TECO timbor joint eonnector systems of design 
and construction have been available and used ni 
this country since early in 1933, But TECO con- 
nectors came to America from ten years' successful 
experience on Eurojjean i)roving grounds. Their 
high commercial success had there established their 
indispensahility to the construction industry. The 
same result is being realized in this country. 

Post-war European designers have relied con- 
sistently ui>on connectors as the key to low-cost 
timbered construction. Huge industrial buildings, 
radio towers, transmission lines, railway stations, 
auditoriums, and many other structural types have 
been erected which, without the aid of connectors, 
would have been economically imj)Ossible. Vienna's 
huge auditorium with a free roof span of 197 feet 
and seating more than seventy-fi\'e thousand per- 
sons is a spectacular connector accomplishment 
(illustrated above). 

Contrasted to America's abimdant supjilies. Euro- 
pvnn timber resources were and are limited. Neces- 
sity demanded invention to reduce the size of 
timber members in construction. Using locally 
grown or American imported timber, this inven- 
tion — timber connectors — proved highly practicable 
and economical. AA'ith America's lower cost timber, 
modern connectors will find e\'en greater utility, 
savings and advantages. Structures already built 
in this country prove this statement. 



Copvricht, 1934 
Sl-5-534 




J!mer co^td for BUILDERS